Lutein

Lutein May Decrease Your Risk of Macular Degeneration

by George Torrey, Ph.D.

Lutein is the dominant component in the peripheral retina.

Dr. Johanna M. Seddon and associates at Harvard University found that 6 mg per day of lutein lead to a 43% lower risk for macular degeneration.(1.) John T. Landrum and Richard A. Bone of Florida International University conducted a two-person study in 1995 to find out if lutein supplements would increase macular pigment. After 140 days, macular pigment increased about 20% in one man, 40 percent in the other. Although this study is minuscule, it is the first evidence that taking lutein supplements may restore lost macular pigment.

Lutein supplements are available in soft-gel capsule form. They should be taken at mealtime because lutein is absorbed better when ingested with a small amount of fat such as olive oil. The recommended dosage is 6 mg to 30 mg daily.

The following chart shows those foods that contain high amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin. Zeaxanthin is the dominant carotenoid in the central macula.

For a printable chart, click here.

 

LUTEIN & ZEAXANTHIN CONCENTRATION IN FRUITS & VEGETABLES
NDB
FOOD
LUTEIN & ZEAXANTHIN
PER 100 g PER SERVING
SERVING
SIZE
11233 Kale, raw            39,550 mcg 22,148 mcg 1 cup
11234 Kale, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
15,798 mcg 16,903.86 mcg 1/2 cup
11569 Turnip Greens, drained,
cooked, boiled, without salt
8,440 mcg 9,030.8 mcg 1/2 cup
11162 Collards, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
8,091 mcg 8,657.37 mcg 1/2 cup
11461 Spinach, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
7,043 mcg 7,536.01 mcg 1/2 cup
11457 Spinach, raw 11,938 mcg 6,685.28 mcg 1 cup
11091 Broccoli, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
2,226 mcg  1,736.28 mcg 1/2 cup
11168 Corn, drained
sweet, yellow, cooked, boiled, without salt
1,800 mcg 1,476 mcg 1/2 cup
11251 Lettuce, raw
cos or romaine
2,635 mcg 1,475.6 mcg 1 cup
11308 Peas, drained solids
green, canned, regular pack
1,350 mcg 1,147.5 mcg 1/2 cup
11099 Brussels Sprouts, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
1,290 mcg 1,006.2 mcg 1/2 cup
11172 Corn, drained solids
sweet, yellow, canned, whole kernel
884 mcg 724.88 mcg 1/2 cup
11053 Beans, drained
snap, green, cooked, boiled, without salt
700 mcg 385 mcg 1/2 cup
09221 Tangerine juice, fresh 166 mcg 307.43 mcg 3/4 cup
09215 Orange juice, frozen concentrate
unsweetened, diluted
138 mcg 257.23 mcg 3/4 cup
09200 Oranges, fresh
all commercial varieties
187 mcg 244.97 mcg 1 medium
09226 Papayas, fresh 75 mcg 228 mcg 1 medium
09218 Tangerines, fresh
(mandarin oranges)
243 mcg 204.12 mcg 1 medium
11252 Lettuce, raw
iceberg (includes crisphead types)
352 mcg 197.12 mcg 1 cup
11279  Okra, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
390 mcg 195 mcg 1/2 cup
11144 Celery, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
250 mcg 187.5 mcg 1/2 cup
11578 Vegetable juice cocktail, canned 80 mcg 145.2 mcg 3/4 cup
11143 Celery, raw 232 mcg 139.2 mcg 1/2 cup
11886 Tomato juice, canned
without salt
60 mcg 109.8 mcg 3/4 cup
09206 Orange juice, fresh 36 mcg 67.1 mcg 3/4 cup
09236 Peaches, fresh 57 mcg 49.59 mcg 1 medium
11531 Tomatoes, red, ripe
canned, whole, regular pack
40 mcg 48 mcg 1/2 cup
11960 Carrots, baby, raw 358 mcg 35.8 mcg 1 medium
09181 Melons, cantaloupe, fresh 40 mcg 32 mcg 1 wedge
09112
Grapefruit, fresh
pink and red
13 mcg
18.98 mcg
1 medium
NDB = Nutritional Data Base
mcg = micrograms; 1000 micrograms = 1 milligram

For a printable chart, click here.

Dr. Seddon concludes that increasing the consumption of foods rich in lutein may decrease the risk of developing advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Dr. Yale Solomon in his book Overcoming Macular Degeneration writes that lutein is particularly important because it is absorbed from the above foods and transported in relatively large quantities to the macula and the lens of the eye. In each of these areas it has a specific, helpful antioxidant action. Lutein may lower the risk of developing AMD and even cataracts, and might prevent advancement in people who are mildly to moderately impaired with these eye diseases.

According to Billy Hammond(2.), studies have suggested that individuals differ in their ability to absorb nutrients from food into their tissues. Some individuals can have a relatively high intake of fruits and vegetables, and high nutrient blood levels, but low levels of retinal nutrients. The ability to measure macular pigment in the living organism may allow doctors to identify such individuals and determine whether they are at special risk for disease. Mr. Hammond writes, “In the future we may be able to use such technology to tailor our dietary recommendations based on individual responses rather than relying on averaged effects.”

The information on nutrition is important information for everyone - not just those already diagnosed with macular degeneration. The AMDF encourages everyone, including younger people, to follow these nutritional guidelines so that they may reduce their risk of developing macular degeneration.

For more information on lutein, see the Lutein Information Bureau site and the results of The Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial (LAST).

George Torrey, Ph.D., a graduate of Brown (‘61), Harvard (‘62) and the Univ. of Connecticut (‘68), writes for the AMDF Newsletter and the AMDF Web site. Both his parents suffered from macular degeneration.

1. Johanna M. Seddon et al, 1994, Journal of American Medical Association 272:1413-20.

2. Co-author of an article in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (Feb. 1998, Vol. 39, No. 2).